The Everton Ladies forward netted in the dying moments of the game cancelling out Russia's first half goal from Nelli Korovkina.
Duggan had been denied moments earlier by the woodwork but her first goal for her country means a win against France on Thursday will see the Lionesses progress to the quarter-finals.
England had started the game the better of the sides as Ellen White saw her shot on the swivel sail over the Russian goal.
Karen Bardsley was called into action moments later as she was forced into a smart save, diving to her right to palm a Petrova header away from the goal.
England's bright start continued early on as Jill Scott was brilliantly denied a goal by Russian keeper Todua who tipped her effort onto the woodwork.
Despite being on the backfoot, Russia looked dangerous on the counter and nearly took the lead as Korovkina's 30 yard dipping effort sailed agonisingly wide of Bardsley's right hand upright.
At the other end, England were creating more chances as Steph Houghton headed wide when well placed, as well as Alex Scott, whose left footed shot drifted wide of the post.
With England's inability to take the lead, it was Russia who broke the deadlock in the 38th minute of the game.
A left wing cross from Elena Morozova was poorly defended by the England back line, allowing Korovkina to head past Bardsley from close range.
The goal knocked England's confidence and gave them 45 minutes to keep themselves in the competition.
They could have been level early on in the second half, but Ellen White was unable to guide a Karen Carney cross into the goal.
As time began to disappear, Hope Powell introduced the injured Kelly Smith, who replaced Houghton as a last gasp attempt to save the game.
The change paid dividend as a deflected cross from Smith fell to the foot of fellow sub Duggan who stroked the ball home from 12 yards, to give England a small chance of progressing.